Fire Extinguishing Equipment and System

<b>Fire Extinguishing Equipment and System</b> The aim of fixed and portable fire extinguishing systems is the holding down and extinguishing of the fire in the area where it was created by SOLASS II-2. For this purpose, it is planned to install sprinkler systems that are appropriate to the fire spread potential in the respective room. In the case of a ship with more than 36 passengers, an automatic sprinkler system must be installed in all lounge and operating rooms, corridors and stairs. Requirements for areas with little or no fire risk are reduced to the effect that no automatic fire extinguishing systems are required. In addition to fixed fire extinguishing systems, easily accessible hand fire extinguishers and wall hydrants should be provided. Hydrant connections should be easily accessible and easy to connect with hoses. Protection against frost must be guaranteed. Suitable portable fire extinguishers should be available in sufficient numbers. If the gross tonnage (GT) is more than 1000, a minimum of five extinguishers is required. These must be easy to use, clearly visible and accessible at all times. A restriction in use due to weather, vibrations or other factors should be excluded. An extinguishing device should be located at the entrance for each intended room. The provision of certain amounts of replacement fillings is due to the mostly remote location of ships. The building regulation “Rules for Classification - Ships - Part 4: Systems and Components, Chap. 11: Fire Safety, Edition October 2015 ”of the classification society DNVGL differentiates the requirements with regard to fire protection according to the size and type of ships: cargo ships < 500 GT or cargo ships > 500 GT and passenger ships; Here are some remarks from this regulation: Section 2 - Fire protection measures for cargo ships of less than 500 GT Fire pumps: Ships with > 150 GT must be equipped with at least one fire extinguisher pump that is operated independently of the main power supply. Ships with < 150 GT must be equipped with at least one motor-driven fire pump that can be driven by the main engine. The capacity of the main fire pump must be at least 25 m3/h for ships with a gross tonnage > 500. In addition, every fire pump must be able to supply at least two extinguishing hoses with the required flow rates and pressures. The required pressure of the main fire extinguishing pump is to be selected so that the requirements of SOLAS are met. Alternatively, on ships with < 300 GT, it must be ensured that each jet pipe is capable of throwing a water jet horizontally over 12 m. For ships > 150 GT, an additional motor-driven fire pump must be installed outside the room in which the main fire pump is located. This pump can be manually operated on ships with > 150 GT. The additional pump must have sufficient delivery capacity and pressure to ensure a 6 m water jet with a diameter of at least 9 mm at the nozzle of the spray lance. It must be possible to direct the water jet onto every part of the ship. No additional fire pump is required for ships with < 100 GT. Fire extinguishing pipes and hydrants: The main fire line must be of sufficient diameter to maintain an even distribution and pressure in the network. A sufficient number of hydrants must be provided and localized in such a way that at least one jet pipe can be connected with which all normally accessible parts of the ship can be reached. At least one hydrant is to be provided in the engine room. At least three fire hoses of at least 15 m length, complete with couplings and spray lance, must be kept ready. The jet pipes must be lockable. They must be able to switch from spray jet to full jet. The beam diameter must be 12 mm; it can be reduced to 10 mm for hand-operated fire pumps. Fire extinguisher: Each powder or CO2 extinguisher must have a capacity of at least 5 kg, each foam extinguisher must have a capacity of at least 9 liters. At least three portable fire extinguishers are to be provided in the exhibition and service area. At least two portable fire extinguishers suitable for extinguishing fires are to be provided for each boiler room, cargo pump room and rooms that contain parts of an oil-fuel system. In engine rooms with internal combustion engines, one portable fire extinguisher must be kept ready for every 375 kW installed engine power. Fixed fire extinguishing systems: For ships with a gross tonnage of > 150 GT, a fixed fire extinguishing system is to be installed in the engine room and in the cargo pump rooms. Such a system is required for ships with > 500 GT.