Tank Heating Systems

<b>Tank Heating Systems</b> Ships that use heavy oil as fuel need a tank heating system in order to make the viscous heavy fuel oil pumpable (approx. 60 ... 70 °C). For this purpose, heating coils are laid in the heavy fuel oil tanks on the floor. Furthermore, the heating elements arranged around the suction nozzle are used to heat the heavy oil. The heating coils on the bottom of the tank usually consist of steel pipes, and in tank heating systems on old ships they are also made of cast iron pipes. The tubes are provided with ribs to enlarge the heating surface; cast iron pipes must be held loosely (2mm air) to prevent the pipe from breaking as a result of hull movements. Steel heating coils of a tank heating sytsem are welded together in great lengths in order to obtain the smallest possible number of pipe fittings. The individual pipe sections are put together by means of flange or socket connections and held in place every 2m². With regard to tank cleaning, they are arranged at a height of about 150mm above the tank floor. The size of the heating surface depends on the position of the individual tanks (outer tanks require more heating surface, inner tanks less) and the type of oil that is to be burned by the ships. The average value for the size of the heating surface for a tank heating system can be assumed: 0.03 m² per cubic meter of cargo hold for medium tanks 0.04 m² per cubic meter of cargo hold for side tanks Tank heating systems are usually operated with steam, which is usually taken from a so-called steam converter. The resulting condensate runs back to him via control devices and oil separators.