<b>Cargo Handling Systems</b> Bulky goods (loose bulk goods) are transported unpackaged as bulk goods (e.g. ore, coal, bauxite, phosphate, cement or grain) in bulk carriers. As a rule, the ships are loaded and unloaded with onshore intermittent conveyors or constant conveyors (e.g. belt conveyors, screw conveyors, flow conveyors). Such conveying devices can also be present on board, e.g. board crane with excavator shovel, as well as the aforementioned continuous conveyors. For loading and unloading (ro-ro and ro-pax ferries have bow, side or stern hatches through which the vehicles can drive over ramps on board. The bow ramp is behind the locked bow hatch. The bow hatch is opened and closed hydraulically by means of two hydraulic cylinders. Tankers are special ships for the transport of liquid or gaseous substances. Examples include: crude oil, fuels, liquid chemicals, liquid gas, but also water and juices. By resolution of the IMO in 1192 in the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), all tankers built after 1996 and having a transport weight of over 5000 t must be equipped with a double hull. Furthermore, the IMO decided that from 2015 only oil tankers with double-walled outer hulls will be allowed to sail the world's oceans. Tankers are filled and unloaded via both on-board and onshore pump and pipeline systems; the extinguishing is usually done with on-board submersible pumps, whereby with so-called super tankers the delivery rates of the individual cargo pumps can be> 10,000 t / h.