<b>Lifeboat / Liferaft</b> Lifeboats and life rafts are collective life-saving appliances (group life-saving appliances). Lifeboats are launched into the water using a special launching device (boat davit, free fall device). The launching device must be designed so that the lowering speed of the lifeboats corresponds to the following formula: v = 0.4 + 0.02 * H, where v is the numerical value of the lowering speed measured in m / s and H is the numerical value of the height difference measured in m between the boat deck and the ballast line. A deviation of +/- 10% is permissible for v. With regard to the required number and arrangement of these collective life-saving appliances, the following applies in principle: Lifeboats must have space on each side or at the stern of cargo ships for all persons on board. On passenger ships there must be space for all persons in boats and life rafts on both sides. At least one lifeboat must be on board on cargo ships under 1600 GRT. Liferafts with space for everyone on board must be on both sides of the ship if the lifeboats are arranged at the stern. On cargo ships <1600 GRT, life rafts must be provided for all persons on each side; Liferafts must be equipped with an approved water pressure release. The following equipment with life-saving appliances applies as an equivalent replacement for life-saving appliances for cargo ships of 500-1600 GRT, with the exception of tankers: - a motor lifeboat for all people that meets the requirements for rescue boats, on one side and - on the other hand, one or more fable life rafts for all persons and - free floating life rafts for all persons In addition, life rafts must be available for a further 25% of the passengers and crew members on board. The fact that life rafts have to be carried along with the lifeboat as an additional means of rescue is due to the fact that there are situations in which not all lifeboats can be deployed, as the Costa Concordia accident showed. For example, the ship Mein Schiff I (1924 passengers, 780 crew members) has the following capacities: - 12 lifeboats for 150 people each - 2 lifeboats for 61 people each - 4 tender boats for 150 people each - 63 life rafts for 25 people each. Due to the possible high fire temperatures and toxic gases on board, further requirements are placed on the construction of the lifeboats on tankers. Freight-fall lifeboats are generally found in freighters, but especially in dangerous-goods freighters, which, due to their design, allow the danger zone to be left in a protected lifeboat via a free-fall device. Such boats are located aft in the area of the deckhouse, often a lifeboat on starboard and one on port. After boarding and locking the freefall lifeboat, the crew buckles into your seats. After releasing the holding device of the boat, it glides on an inclined plane in free fall with its bow first into the sea, whereby the impact on the water surface is reduced. There are precise regulations depending on the type of ship. Minimum standards for safety on ships are described in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea - SOLAS.